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The actual process of advancing the blockchain is described here in general terms. It's quite similar to Tendermint's approach, and the differences are outlined below.


  1. A new block is proposed by the correct proposer each round and broadcast to the other validators. The block includes a batch of transactions from the local transaction pool. If a proposer is Byzantine it might broadcast different proposals to different validators.

  2. Two phases of voting, called pre-vote and pre-commit, then commence. A majority (>2/3) of pre-commits for the same block at the same round results in a commit. If a validator does not receive a correct proposal within ProposalTimeout, it pre-votes for nil instead

In an asynchronous environments with Byzantine validators, a single stage of voting, where each validator casts only one vote, is not sufficient to ensure safety. In essence, because validators can act fraudulently, and because there are no guarantees on message delivery time, a rogue validator can co-ordinate some validators to commit a value while others, having not seen the commit, go to a new round, within which they commit a different value. A single stage of voting allows validators to tell each other what they know about the proposal. But to tolerate Byzantine faults (which amounts, essentially to lies, fraud, deceit, etc.), they must also tell each other what they know about what other validators have professed to know about the proposal. In other words, a second stage ensures that enough validators witnessed the result of the first stage.

When a validator receives a more than two-thirds pre-votes for a single block, it has received a signal that the network is prepared to commit the block, and serves as justification for the validator to sign and broadcast a pre-commit vote for that block. Sometimes, due to network asynchrony, a validator may not receive a polka, or there may not have been one. In that case, the validator is not justified in signing a pre-commit for that block, and must therefore sign and publish a pre-commit vote for nil. That is, it is considered malicious behaviour to sign a pre-commit without justification from a polka.

A pre-commit is a vote to actually commit a block. A pre-commit for nil is a vote to actually move to the next round. If a validator receives more than two-thirds pre-commits for a single block, it commits that block, computes the resulting state, and moves on to round 0 at the next height. If a validator receives more than two-thirds pre-commits for nil, it moves on to the next round. A pre-vote for a block is thus a vote to prepare the network to commit the block. A pre-vote for nil is a vote to prepare the network to move to the next round.

The outcome of a round is either a commit, or a decision to move to the next round. With a new round comes the next proposer.