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Minting mining tokens


In the early stages of any real-currency network, or on a test net, it's necessary to generate and allocate mining tokens in order to validate on the network.

The sum of tokens for each network is 2^30, which is roughly one billion. Only a few of these tokens are pre-minted (they're used by the genesis validator to start the network); the rest must be minted and allocated to token holders by a set of temporary governor accounts which are initially defined in the genesis block, and then controlled by vote of the governors themselves. Eventually all the tokens will be minted, and the governors can retire from their roles.

Tokens are held by any valid address in the network. They can be held by humans via any kind of software, hardware or brain wallet key, and the can also be held by smart contracts.

Governance keys

Each governor is represented by an account, or governance key, that is able to make transactions on the network. In the case of main nets, these are typically hardware keys that kept under very tight security.

The governors are represented on the network as a multisig contract. There can be any number of governance keys, and the governors may choose between them the number of agreeing votes (called confirmations) required for any given transaction (a process sometimes called M of N). The minting of tokens is such a transaction, and it therefore requires a previously specified number of confirmations in order to take place.

For example, a group of 5 governors might decide that they require 3 votes between them in order to issue some number of tokens to an account. In order to actually mint tokens, one governor would propose a transaction that mints X transactions to address Y. Once two other governors confirm this initial proposition, the tokens would be automatically minted. If there are not enough votes, the tokens will never be minted.

Minting procedure

The process consists of a series of data transactions made to a multisig contract that's embedded into the network genesis. Creating, signing and sending complex data transactions is rather difficult for most humans, so we're made some tooling in the console that makes things easier.

The basic process is as described above: one governance key submits a transaction that will mint some tokens to an account. This initial submissions results in a minting ID: a number, which is an arbitrary reference to the suggested minting operation. The remaining governance keys can confirm the transaction by referencing the minting ID — or ignore it if they don't want to confirm it.

The operations that constitute this process take place in the Javascript console. In order to use them, you'll need to have a running node and access to your secure keys (which may be on USB devices).

For the sake of simplicity, the examples given below assume 2 of 3 multisig setup. That is, one governor submits a transaction, and only one other governor has to confirm it.

Transaction submission

Syntax, recipient_address, amount_of_tokens)

Example usage in the console

>, "0x1f1f1480f77b2565ae7f3a5580fd3da79b59b09b", 10); 

This would submit a transaction of 10 mtokens to the address ending b09b. The transaction will not be actioned until it's confirmed by another governance key.

Listing pending and complete transactions



Example usage in the console

> mtoken.mintList()

For which the output might be something like:

    amount: 42,
    confirmed: false,
    id: 0,
    to: "0x1f1f1480f77b2565ae7f3a5580fd3da79b59b09b"
}, {
    amount: 44,
    confirmed: true,
    id: 1,
    to: "0x1f1f1480f77b2565ae7f3a5580fd3da79b59b09b"

The id field is the minting ID, which will be needed in the confirmation step. Once a transaction is submitted, it will appear at the end of this list for verification. The confirmed field indicated whether or not another governance key has confirmed the transaction (and thus actioned it).



mtoken.confirm(governance_key_address, minting_id)

Example usage

> mtoken.confirm(eth.coinbase, 1)

This would confirm the transaction with minting ID 1, and action it. In the example output above, it would issue 42 tokens to the address ending b09b.